21 Vol. 20, dicembre 2019
Geosemiotica: dai locative media, alle immagini diffuse, ai big e small data | Geosemiotics: from locative media to diffused images, big and small data
METADATI: apri il frontespizio (pdf), DOI: 10.12977/ocula2019-17
FASCICOLO: apri il pdf con tutti i contributi
Hanno collaborato a questo numero: Giorgio Avezzù, Giovanni Curtis, Enzo D'Armenio, Guido Ferraro, Marta Milia, Federico Montanari, Antonio Opromolla, Bruno Surace.
|Introduzione | Introduction||di Federico Montanari|
The present issue of Ocula, edited by Federico Montanari, Nicola Dusi and Guido Ferraro, intends to investigate a new and yet topical issue, one which is in constant transformation: the vast field of locative media and their intertwining with data and their definition. The diverse approaches have moved from semiotics to socio-semiotics and contemporary media studies. Such a multifarious approach to the issue at hand has been largely due to the fact that the booming of locative media has taken place thanks to the widespread use of technological instruments (i.e., smartphones, tablets, wearable devices and so on) that have allowed for the crossing of social media, territorial locationing and geo-localized information as well as the shared ability to make instant use of the very sources of all types of images, including territorial maps.
|Mappare la distruzione: locative media e narrazione del sisma ad Amatrice | Mapping the destruction. Locative Media and the narration of the earthquake in Amatrice||di Marta Milia|
This contribution intends to analyze the relationship between the practice of geolocation, through mobile devices and social media, and the management of events having a particularly traumatic impact on a community. The study concerns the earthquake that struck central Italy on August 2016 and in particular the town of Amatrice, with a focus on the narration and localization of the daily activities of individuals. The reflection on the relationship between locative Media and the narration of everyday life, of the experience through the space-based location and of the destruction not only of physical but also of metaphorical places, is articulated through the study and monitoring of such “sense mappings” on social media. They are well recognizable and distinguishable through markers proper of their diffusion, such as the hashtags. Such individual narrative process becomes “usable” by other individuals through the so-called Locative Media, which allow to share not only a geographical position accompanied by images, phrases, videos, but also the personal and intimate experiences which evolve into visible, analyzable and public narratives, that can be shared by other users.
|Dai sensi ai dati. Le protesi audiovisive tra percezione ed enunciazione | From senses to data. Audiovisual prostheses between perception and enunciation||di Enzo D'Armenio|
In this paper we propose a semiotic approach for the study of digital media, taking into consideration the production of signs by audiovisual prostheses. By establishing a dialogue between the media theories and the more recent semiotic hypotheses, we propose to account for the developments triggered by digital media starting from four general dimensions of meaning: perception, enunciation, communication and transmission.
Our hypothesis is that digital prostheses, automatically producing a large amount of documents, have restructured the threshold that divides the first two dimensions, those of perception and enunciation, generating new semiotic regimes that affect communication management and institutional meaning.
|Spazi urbani ibridi. Dall’introduzione del digitale ai processi sociali nella città | Hybrid urban spaces. From the introduction of digital technology to new social processes in the city||di Giovanni Curtis, Antonio Opromolla|
The contribution starts from a review of the main studies of the semiotics of urban spaces in order to focus on how nowadays, new social processes and the introduction of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) transform the traditional categorisations between different types of urban spaces. In particular, the possibility of a constant connection of individuals leads to an overcoming of the physical and material boundaries inherent within the idea of “space”, leading to bringing together, mixing and communicating different categories of spaces. New forms of urban space emerge. In the contribution we deal, for example, with the transformation of the concept of “limit”, which becomes more and more fleeting and nuanced on the basis of technological elements, at the same time creating new social processes. These elements let emerge the need of new design tools able to face the emerging complexity.
|Visori e galline nel Web of Beings. Second Livestock fra goliardia, semiologia e filosofia | Visors and chickens in the Web of Beings. Second Livestock between goliards, semiotics and philosophy||di Bruno Surace|
Second Livestock is the pioneering invention of Austin Stewart, of Iowa State University. It is a viewer for hens, connected to an insulating cabin, which would introduce the latter into a decidedly better virtual world than the one in which they are forced on intensive farms. Of this invention there are only botched traces -images, texts, an introductory video - in a dedicated website, and everything suggests that it is a joke, or more precisely an artistic exercise aimed at polemizing the conditions of farmed poultry. In this essay however we treat Second Livestock deliberately as a realistic prototype, investigating the specificities of animal-centered-design and the
relative contradictions of this paradigm. Second Livestock is analyzed starting from what the project is given to us in textual terms, and at the same time the semiotic analysis is flanked by all the philosophical and ethical problems that arise. The analysis can tell us many things about the current state of the debate on the animal condition, the relationship between technology and ideology, the status and the imagery connected
to the geo-media. The result is a new paradigm of reading of the current media society, which is no longer the exclusive one of the web of things, but which we rename, in the light of the observations made, web of beings.
|Interferenza omotopica e locational imaging noir. Una riflessione geocritica sugli spazi disturbanti nel cinema a partire da Black Dahlia | Homotopic interference and locational noir imaging. A geocritical reflection on disturbing spaces in cinema starting from Black Dahlia||di Giorgio Avezzù|
This paper aims at offering a geocritical exploration of cinema starting from The Black Dahlia (Brian De Palma,
2006) and retracing the tradition of the noir film genre, taking into consideration the peculiar relations between this genre and “real” spaces and geographies. The question of Hollywood cinema representing Hollywood itself (and Los Angeles) will be considered in order to verify a fundamental difference between how “disturbing spaces” are constructed in cinema and in literature. While the geocritical approach to the study of literature usually maintains that similar “interfering” spaces are (de)constructed through “heterotopic” strategies, the case of noir film genre shows how cinema – a very singular locative medium – can effectively rely on “homotopic” strategies, instead.
|I luoghi, il senso. Costruzione e decostruzione dell’effetto del luogo nelle fotografie di Instagram | Locations and their meaning. How the sense of place is constructed and decostructed in Instagram photos||di Guido Ferraro|
This article deals with the peculiarities of typical Instagram photographs (use of blurring, “filters” that decrease the chromatic range, and so on), in relation with the idea that these images should represent with immediacy the flow of life, as well as in relation with the use of geolocalized media, and the consequent ambition
to create a sort of visual map of the world. The tools of a semiotic analysis allow us to assume that the functions of these images go beyond their apparent purposes; this is a case that is anything but trivial, indeed theoretically relevant, as we cam see a way of composition between the referential functions of images and their capacity to produce meaning.