20 Vol. 20, ottobre 2019
La place de l'usager en design | The Place of the User in Design
METADATI: apri il frontespizio (pdf), DOI: 10.12977/ocula2019-1
FASCICOLO: apri il pdf con tutti i contributi
Hanno collaborato a questo numero: Françoise Armand, Claire Azéma, Philippe Barrier, Elvire Bornand, Pierre Bourdareau, Rabah Bousbaci, Marie-Julie Catoir-Brisson, Marie Coirié, Justine Coubard-Millot, Carine Delanoë-Vieux, Michela Deni, Manel Djemel, Grace Eden, Florian Evéquoz, Xavier Figuerola, Jacky Foucher, Emmanuel Fragnière, Inès Garmon, Gonzalo Lizarralde, Jacques Lolive, Christian Malaurie, Benjamin Nanchen, Françoise Paquienséguy, Randolf Ramseyer, Pierre-Michel Riccio, Machelle Ye, Rihab Zaidi.
|Introduction||di Michela Deni, Marie-Julie Catoir-Brisson|
The aims of this issue is a reflection on the concept of user in design projects and its place in design processes. Beyond any lexical choice, questioning the multiple identities of users means considering them according to the contexts and approaches: users, individuals, persons, citizens, beneficiaries, stakeholders, actors, subjects, agents, clients, patients, consumers, etc. Each definition consists in a conceptual posture that both includes and constructs an anthropological vision of the subjects concerned as well as the consequent practices.
|Le design social à l’épreuve. Comment démocratiser les politiques de gestion du risque à Sao Paulo? | Social design test. How to democratize risk management policies in Sao Paulo?||di Jacques Lolive|
In this article I present a research and action project on the life of the risk areas inhabitants in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (RMSP) carried in cooperation between France and Brazil. In a first part I will analyze the risk society manifestations in the RMSP and the behaviors of the risk areas inhabitants. In a second part I will present our social design approach for a democratization project of the risk management public policies in the State of São Paulo to improve the living environment of these inhabitants.
|La temporalité du projet d’aménagement à l’épreuve des dilemmes éthiques liés à la participation citoyenne | The project’s temporality facing the ethical dilemmas of citizen participation||di Manel Djemel, Machelle Ye, Rabah Bousbaci, Gonzalo Lizarralde|
The project’s temporality facing the ethical dilemmas of citizen participation – Urban development projects mobilize a complex network of stakeholders (PP) that intervene at several scales and decision-making levels of the project. These PPs represent different and sometimes divergent interests. Research on development actors has shown the emergence of new paradigms that have a significant influence on decision-making processes. Among these, citizen participation (CP), presented as a modality that aims for “direct democracy” and “social justice”, and to promote the social acceptability of projects. Paradoxically, CP sometimes becomes a source of conflict and controversy, leading to complexification or even slowing of project processes. The purpose of this article is to understand the influence of CP-related conflicts and controversies on project timelines. We will approach this phenomenon from the angle of ethics, understood as the driving force of social justice. Based on the analysis of a construction project for a primary school in a borough of the city of Montreal, the observation of the phenomenon under the lens of ethical theories allows us to highlight the main controversies stemming from the CP and their effects on the time of project completion. The analysis shows that the participatory approach, which was initially put in place from the perspective of social inclusion and experimentation of new project cultures, led to a long decision-making process.
|Mieux prendre en compte l’usager dans le design de transport public. Cas d’étude sur les navettes autonomes à Sion | Taking better account of the user in the design of public transport. Case study on autonomous shuttles in Sion||di Randolf Ramseyer, Emmanuel Fragnière, Benjamin Nanchen, Florian Evéquoz, Grace Eden|
In the field of mobility, the arrival of autonomous transport systems is increasing. It is therefore essential to take into account the factors that will have an impact on the adoption of these systems by users. In general, for the implementation of a technology to be successful, the service provided by it must improve the comfort and safety of the user. In this article we present the immersion results of 21 users of the autonomous shuttle from the city of Sion in Switzerland. This study is the first step in a service design approach to optimize autonomous shuttles as a public mobility service.
|Bâtir et penser l’habitabilité d’un commun. Réflexions autour de la notion d’usage dans le projet de design | Building and thinking the habitability of a common. Reflections onthe notion of useness in the desing project||di Claire Azéma, Christian Malaurie, Pierre Bourdareau|
Our collective proposal seeks to promote usage rather than user. This reflection, conducted by the prism of anthropology, is committed against an objective, modeling and reductive vision of the user as it has developed in recent years in certain approaches of the project in design. The text relies on the conduct, observation and study of a concrete situation of design in order to show the interest of thinking and planning the project in a sensitive relationship of association and mediation (and not strictly utilitaristic) between human and non-human actants. It is also a question of emphasizing the practical and political implications of the uses in the manufacture of the common.
|Y a-t-il (vraiment) un usager ? Les rôles de contributeur, usager, client, collaborateur sur les plateformes numériques de publications scientifiques | Is there (really) a user? The roles of contributor, user, customer, collaborator on digital platforms for scientific publications||di Françoise Armand, Pierre-Michel Riccio|
The promise of knowledge sharing against a backdrop of mutualization and the related accompanying speeches offer digital platform contributors a participatory, mutual aid vision. The field of scientific production is no exception to this logic. Its clients are institutions that rely on data provided by the researchers themselves. Through the analysis of the architecture and content of these platforms (Barthes, Souchier, Floch, Pérec,...) and the desire for recognition of the researcher (Honneth) who appropriates the tool (de Certeau) we analyze the roles of user, contributor, customer, collaborator.
|Les relations de pouvoir comme fondement des stratégies d’intégration des usagers dans le design process | Power’s relationships as the basis of the user’s integration strategies in the design process||di Rihab Zaidi|
The current paper aims to show the importance of considering the power relations in the implementation of the user’s integration strategies. In order to do this, we first suppose that the user’s integration strategy is a “strategical function” of design device that focuses on the power relations. We would proceed secondly to problematizing the design device on the basis of the relation between “power & knowledge” of use, which will be examined through the competence/performance modality. Our argumentation will be based on the methodology of LIUP’s study. LIUP is The Laboratory of Innovative Usages and Practices, in the Cité du design in saint-Etienne.
|L’usage, de l’appropriation au design | Uses, from appropriation to design||di Françoise Paquienséguy|
This text works around a central question on thinking uses and user in Design, conceived as an abstract and at the same time a creative process: what does the Design make of the user’s notion? In other words, how does it use it? How does it integrate it into the heart of its professional practices? This analysis naturally crosses two disciplinary approaches, that of the Design, and that of the information and communication Sciences which worked to define the use in connection with a technical object; the idea will thus be to show the sliding of the appropriation and the uses from the later to the former.
|Tinder : un design centré utilisateur ? La place de l’usager en régime de swipe | Tinder: a user-centered design? The user’s position within the swipe design||di Inès Garmon|
This article questions the user’s place within the design of the geolocalised dating app Tinder. It aims to analyse its situation in the real and achieved practices of this service as well as to provide a way of thinking about its condition in touch-screen devices’ design, starting with their way of being manipulated. As they are relevant both for industrials and consumers, the “Small gestures” allowing manipulation of touch-screens are the core of the relationship between the conceptor / the objects / the users and of a half-consent illusion. Beyond semiotic and technical forms, attractives and euphorics, some new economical, political, cultural, social and anthropological forces are now involved.
|Origine et destination du soin medical | Médical care: origin and destination||di Philippe Barrier|
Defining the user as both professional and beneficiary, I propose a systemic and participative modelling of project management. This means, in the field of medical care, that the patient is both at the beginning and at the end of the process and that he is therefore an actor of care in his own right.
|L’expérience du patient en design, une ressource pour la conception d’un parcours d’hospitalité dans un hôpital neuf | Designing a patient’s journey, a key tool on the way to building a global hospitality experience within a new hospital building||di Carine Delanoë-Vieux, Marie Coirié, Justine Coubard-Millot, Xavier Figuerola|
The lab-ah is a hospitality and innovation lab working at the heart of the University Hospitals of Paris for Psychiatry & Neurosciences. As a first step towards designing a global hospitable experience within the architectural program of the new building of a neurosciences-specialized hospital, lab-ah has initiated the study of a patient’s journey. Throughout this article, the authors reveal the emerging figure of the health care user. A figure whose subjectivity and autonomy are reinforced rather than denied.
|Faire exister usages et usagers au sein d’un processus de design des politiques publiques. Retour d’expérience | Making uses and users visible during a public policy design process. Feedback from work practices||di Elvire Bornand, Jacky Foucher|
Since more than thirty years, the « user » figure plays a central role in the modernization of public policies. Since the beginning of the 2010s, local public actors have multiplied the recourse to external service providers, working with on user-centered design approaches of public policies. The role the designers have to play on these projects raises some questions, even reveal tensions, on which the authors propose to encompass through a reflexive analysis of their own professional practice.